IP Licensing agreements
We are experienced negotiators avoiding pitfalls and getting you ahead. We help you to reach the best commercial deal for your business.
We will deliver you with terms that are FRAND-compliant (fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory) and enforceable.
A licence is a permission to do something that, without the licence, would be an infringement of the intellectual property owner’s rights. The terms of an IP licence are varied and depend on the relationship between the licensor and the licensee and their relative bargaining powers during negotiation.
Key negotiation points for a IP licensing agreement
Our team are experienced in negotiating contracts and know the key pitfalls to avoid in licences so we don’t waste time researching or playing catch-up. We help you to reach the best commercial deal for your business. As a starting point you should consider the following points:
- How long is the licence for? Does it automatically renew?
- What happens if the licence terms are breached?
- Can the terms be varied, if so, how?
- Are modifications to software permitted? – Often licensees request the right to modify or adapt works, particularly in technology and software code. It is important to decide which party owns the modifications and developments.
- Can the licence be sub-licensed or assigned?
- If you have multiple licences, do the exclusivity provisions conflict?
- What happens to the licence if the licensor’s ownership is sold?
- What are the repercussions of early termination, failure to pay fees/royalties and insolvency?
Until you are ready to sign, make sure your negotiations are labelled ‘subject to contract’ to reduce the risk of being bound by terms before they are finalised. If you are negotiating with a company outside the UK it is worth taking local advice, as many countries impose obligations to negotiate in good faith and you could find yourself paying damages if you walk away improperly.
Licence or assignment?
Assignment is the legal term for the transfer or sale of ownership of the intellectual property rights from the assignor to the assignee. With a licence, the licensee is legally permitted to use the intellectual property rights, with the licensor retaining ownership.
If you are licensing intellectual property that is essential to achieving a technical standard you must ensure your terms are FRAND-compliant (fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory).
To preserve the opportunities for new revenue streams do you want to restrict use of your IP to certain products, customer bases or industries? Can the work only be used for research or not-for-profit ventures? Have you got adequate enforcement powers if something goes wrong? The remedies available under contract law often differ to those available under intellectual property law.
Licence fee models
The licence fee/royalty structure will depend on the exclusivity of the licence, exposure to risk, product liability and support offered for the licensee. There are a variety of licence agreement models and costing elements to think about:
- Commission – some licence models work on commission based on revenue generated by the licensee. Commission-based licence fees will need a corresponding transparency right to monitor sales.
- Usage – Review clauses are useful to allow the licence fee to be tailored to the actual usage as the relationship develops and changes. This is especially important if you are licensing a new product.
- Flat fees or lump sums – attractive but in competitive markets the users may demand more sophistication.
- Technical support – many licence agreements come with helpdesk and technical support. The cost can be wrapped up into the licence fee or charged as a separate price point. Service level agreements are often used in connection with technical support.
- Hosting – a consideration as more software is operated on cloud platforms. A cloud computing service can be offered on a “pay-as-you-go” or “pay-per-use” cost structure.
If your technology or product involves the use of personal data you will have data protection issues and hence costs to consider. The relative bargaining power of the parties will often dictate pricing – but external factors such as licensing region also need to be reflected in the price.
Scope of the license
If your product is under development you will want to keep new markets open to you and not your competitors. Do you want a sole, exclusive or non-exclusive licence? What rights will the licensee have? Can they develop the work or only use it in its current form?
Indemnities and warranties
Warranties and indemnities in your licence agreement usually come into play if someone considers that their intellectual property rights are being infringed. If you want to stop your technology or IP sold under licence being used to build competing applications, the permitted uses will need to be well documented in the licence.
Some intellectual property licences, such as patents, trademarks and registered designs may need to be registered at a relevant IPR registry. Failure to do so may mean that the transaction is ineffective against a person acquiring a conflicting interest in that IP right.
Licensing Trade mark use
If you are licensing a trade mark for a medium-long term period be aware that a trade mark can be revoked where it has not been used in the previous five years. The licence agreement itself is insufficient evidence of use – you will need evidence of turnover generated as a result of the trade mark use. Think about including a minimum use provision in the licence.
We can help
Negotiating a licence can be a minefield and then comes the vital drafting or reviewing depending on who we are advising. Our team of experienced solicitors help you protect your interests and avoid the trip-wires that will cause problems for you later down the line.
Kevin is a specialist IP lawyer, with 7 years post qualified experience as a solicitor. He deals with the full range of IP rights and advises on legal, commercial and strategic ways to protect and commercialise Intellectual Property rights.